Once the embryos are ready, you will return to the IVF facility so doctors can transfer one or more into your uterus. This procedure is quicker and easier than the retrieval of the egg. The doctor will insert a flexible tube called a catheter through your vagina and cervix and into your uterus, where the embryos will be deposited. To increase the chances of pregnancy, most IVF experts recommend transferring up to three embryos at a time. However, this means you could have a multiple pregnancy, which can increase the health risks for both you and the babies.
Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene) is a medication commonly used for the treatment of women with ovulation disorders as reflected by infrequent or irregular menstrual cycles. Clomid is a pill taken orally for 5 to 7 days, typically on day 3 of a woman’s menstrual cycle to induce ovulation. Clomid works at the level of the brain and pituitary gland and facilitates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). FSH and LH, in turn, stimulate the ovaries to produce eggs and the ovarian hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). The initial prescribed dosage of clomid is 50 to 100 mg (one or two tablets) daily at bedtime, or as prescribed by your physician.

In the natural process of conception without treatment, a woman’s ovaries produce a mature egg each month, which leaves the ovary and travels along the fallopian tube towards the uterus. Sperm that has been deposited in the vagina through intercourse travels through the cervix through the uterus and up the fallopian tube toward the egg. Millions of sperm are lost in the cervix and do not travel to the fallopian tube. When the two meet, they join to form the early stage of an embryo which then travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus. If all goes well, it will implant in the lining of the womb and pregnancy begins.

Very slight elements of risk are associated with any medical intervention but for IVF the most notable risk in the past has been multiple births. The impact of multiple births on birth weight, premature delivery, and post-natal complications is well known. This is largely due to the practice over the past 30 years of transferring two or more embryos during IVF. Thanks to PGT-A testing and Single Embryo Transfer (SET), however, doctors can now feel confident about transferring just one normal embryo. At RMA, we have established SET as the standard of care going forward. With SET, the risk of multiple births is drastically reduced.


The goal of this treatment is to increase the number of sperm that reach the Fallopian tube and subsequently increase the chance of fertilization. IUI provides the sperm an advantage by giving it a head start, but still requires the sperm to reach and fertilize the egg on its own. Depending on your fertility diagnosis, IUI can be coordinated with your normal cycle or with fertility medications.
Men will need to have sperm testing. This involves giving a semen sample, which a lab will analyze for the number, size, and shape of the sperm. If the sperm are weak or damaged, a procedure called intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be necessary. During ICSI, a technician injects sperm directly into the egg. ICSI can be part of the IVF process.
Embryos are transferred to the uterus. Embryos that have developed from the fertilization process will be placed in the uterus, normally 3 to 5 days after retrieval, so that they can embed. If this process is successful, pregnancy will occur and IVF is considered a success. If it’s not, you may use a frozen embryo that you have saved from a previous round of IVF to try again.
Another major cause of infertility in women may be the inability to ovulate. Malformation of the eggs themselves may complicate conception. For example, polycystic ovarian syndrome is when the eggs only partially develop within the ovary and there is an excess of male hormones. Some women are infertile because their ovaries do not mature and release eggs. In this case synthetic FSH by injection or Clomid (Clomiphene citrate) via a pill can be given to stimulate follicles to mature in the ovaries.
Heavy, as in a pad and a tampon still doesn’t feel like enough. Certain medical conditions, like thyroid problems or kidney disease, can cause excessive menstrual bleeding, medications (such as anti-inflammatory drugs or anti-coagulants) may as well; or the reason may be a condition linked to infertility. In a normal menstrual cycle, the hormones estrogen and progesterone work together to regulate the buildup of the lining of the uterus—that’s the stuff that sheds during your period. But if, for example, your ovaries don’t release an egg, the dominoes are tipped: your body produces less progesterone, hormones become imbalanced, the lining in your uterus over-develops, and you end up bleeding extra heavily. Fibroids in your uterus can also cause heavier or longer-than-normal periods; some types of these benign tumors can block fallopian tubes or interfere with the implantation of a fertilized egg. Up to 10 percent of infertile women have fibroids, according to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. If you soak through at least one pad or tampon an hour for more than a few hours, see your doctor.  This is the worst health advice gynecologists have ever heard.
Patients with hypothalamic dysfunction are not producing signals within their brains to tell the ovary to mature an egg. They are diagnosed because they have an extremely low FSH and a low LH (almost zero). Neither clomid nor letrozole will help them. For these patients, IUI must be accompanied by gonadotropin to be effective. From here on in this section, none of the data we’ll reference refers to patients with hypothalamic dysfunction.
For many years, intrauterine insemination (IUI) was felt to be the best first choice of treatment in patients who have unexplained infertility or mild problems with the fallopian tubes or sperm. Arizona Reproductive Medicine (ARMS) has made significant advances in the cost effectiveness of in vitro fertilization (IVF) through higher IVF success rates and innovations in treatment medications and efficiency. IVF now far exceeds IUI as the best first choice of treatment for all age groups.
Cancer. Although some early studies suggested there may be a link between certain medications used to stimulate egg growth and the development of a specific type of ovarian tumor, more-recent studies do not support these findings. There does not appear to be a significantly increased risk of breast, endometrial, cervical or ovarian cancer after IVF.

Life isn’t fair – there’s no doubt about it. That’s why it helps to have faith in God, to know He loves you and wants you to have the best possible life. My husband and I can’t have children, and it was the most disappointing discovery of my life. Trusting God when you can’t get pregnant is not easy – especially if you’ve been trying to conceive for months or even years.
Amongst these two patient populations (which we’ll refer to now as PCOS), IUI with clomid and letrozole generally shows no improvement versus when these drugs are taken without IUI. When IUI is coupled with gonadotropins, success rates reach 14 - 26% per cycle, which is higher than almost any other patient class, but still pales in comparison to IVF. It’s also worth noting that PCOS patients who are taking gonadotropins have a very high risk of multiples.

Ovarian stem cells: it is thought that women have a finite number of follicles from the very beginning. Nevertheless, scientists have found these stem cells, which may generate new oocytes in postnatal conditions.[67] Apparently there are only 0.014% of them (this could be an explanation of why they were not discovered until now).[citation needed] There is still some controversy about their existence, but if the discoveries are true, this could be a new treatment for infertility.
Infertility problems and miscarriage rates increase significantly after 35 years of age. There are now options for early egg retrieval and storage for women in their 20's. This will help ensure a successful pregnancy if childbearing is delayed until after age 35. This is an expensive option. However, women who know they will need to delay childbearing may consider it.
The diagnosis of infertility is often very overwhelming for patients. There is a plethora of information served to them. First is, they can conceive a child only through medical treatment. Second is, the insurmountable amount of information that is hard to comprehend. New medical jargon along with recommendations for treatments and tests that are completely unfamiliar can be very intimidating for the newly diagnosed. Indira IVF's Reproductive Specialists believe in creating a partnership with the patient, and we have found that the most successful partnerships occur when the patient is well-informed and can play an active role in their treatment. We value an open and ethical relationship with each patient in an environment that fosters trust and mutual respect, an environment where questions are welcome and encouraged.
While I’m not on the list to receive a Nobel Prize for mathematics any time soon, I do have enough understanding of how probabilities work to know that roulette isn’t a very viable long term career choice. Figuring that if I could make this costly error in analysis, there must be at least a few others out there that have, or will, make the same mistake as me…
IVF Michigan Fertility Centers, one of the leading fertility clinics in the world, provides a wide variety of infertility treatments as well as in vitro-related procedures. With over 60 years of collective experience and locations in Bloomfield Hills, Ann Arbor, Dearborn, East Lansing, Macomb, Petoskey, Cheboygan, Saginaw and Toledo, Ohio, the fertility experts at IVF Michigan Fertility Center are available to help couples throughout the Midwest and abroad. Treatment options available at IVF Michigan Fertility Center include IVF-ICSI, IUI (artificial insemination), gender selection, comprehensive chromosomal screening through PGT, screening for hereditary diseases through PGT-M, diagnosis of and treatment for male infertility, egg donation, fertility preservation and much more.
May you accept your body – even if you are an infertile man. We struggled with male factor infertility in our marriage, and it strengthened our marriage and our faith in God. May you feel God’s blessing on you even if you can’t conceive children naturally. May you walk in faith, and trust that He knows what He is doing. Don’t give up on your God, for He is loving and compassionate.
It’s not because you just ate a whole lot of greasy food (myth!). Sudden, out-of-control acne could be blamed on fluctuating hormones (from your period or menopause), a whole lot of stress, or a medication side effect. It may also be a sign of polycystic ovarian syndrome. That’s because in women with PCOS, ovaries make more androgen—the “male hormone”—than normal. Elevated levels may lead to adult acne flare-ups, as well as excessive facial or body hair, and even male-patterned baldness. These natural acne remedies may help your skin.
There are many studies comparing success rates between clomid, letrozole, or gonadotropins for patients with unexplained infertility, but two stand out as the best and most informative. The first study was conducted at multiple sites across the country and was termed the AMIGOS trial. In this study, gonadotropins produced the highest pregnancy rate, followed by clomid, and then letrozole. However, almost one third of all pregnancies in the gonadotropin arm was either a twin or triplet gestation. This was significantly higher than the clomid or letrozole arms.

During the second half of your menstrual cycle, the hormone progesterone kicks in to help prepare the lining of your uterus for a fertilized egg. If the egg isn't fertilized and doesn't implant, it disintegrates, progesterone levels fall, and about 12 to 16 days later, the egg -- along with blood and tissues from the lining of the uterus -- is shed from the body. That process is menstruation. It usually lasts 3 to 7 days.
There is no one-size-fits-all solution to infertility, and the path you take will be unique to your specific case, but there are some common starting points. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) are two of the most popular infertility treatments available today. Understanding what they are, who they are intended for, and what the success rates are for these two options will give you a place to begin your conversations with your fertility expert. Here’s what you need to know.
From the What to Expect editorial team and Heidi Murkoff, author of What to Expect Before You’re Expecting. Health information on this site is based on peer-reviewed medical journals and highly respected health organizations and institutions including ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics), as well as the What to Expect books by Heidi Murkoff.
For healthy couples in their 20s or early 30s, the chance that a woman will get pregnant is about 25 to 30 percent in any single menstrual cycle. This percentage starts to decline in a woman’s early 30s. By age 40, a woman’s chance of getting pregnant drops to less than 10 percent per menstrual cycle. A man’s fertility also declines with age, but not as predictably.
The main durations of embryo culture are until cleavage stage (day two to four after co-incubation) or the blastocyst stage (day five or six after co-incubation).[71] Embryo culture until the blastocyst stage confers a significant increase in live birth rate per embryo transfer, but also confers a decreased number of embryos available for transfer and embryo cryopreservation, so the cumulative clinical pregnancy rates are increased with cleavage stage transfer.[30] Transfer day two instead of day three after fertilisation has no differences in live birth rate.[30] There are significantly higher odds of preterm birth (odds ratio 1.3) and congenital anomalies (odds ratio 1.3) among births having from embryos cultured until the blastocyst stage compared with cleavage stage.[71]
Many women spend much of their early adult lives trying not to get pregnant. But when you finally do want to start a family and it doesn’t happen right away, it can leave you feeling frustrated. Not to mention, trying to get pregnant month after month unsuccessfully can be emotionally taxing. You should know that you are not alone, and that unexplained infertility is exactly that– unexplained– so no finger pointing as to who is at fault!
Hashimoto's thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disorder causing inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of hypothyroidism, and is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US. Symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis may include dry skin, fatigue, weight gain, feeling cold, excessive sleepiness, dry skin, dry coarse hair, difficulty swallowing, a lump in the front of the throat, muscle cramps, mood changes, vague aches and pains, problems concentrating, leg swelling, constipation, and depression. There is no cure for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Diet changes, natural supplements, vitamins, or other natural products will not treat Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Treatment for the autoimmune disorder is with thyroid hormone replacement therapy, which will be necessary for the rest of the person’s life.
Our physicians generally perform IUIs 1 and a 1/2 days after the trigger injection, which sets ovulation in motion. The exact timing of insemination is not critical to the exact time of ovulation. Both the sperm and the egg remain viable in the female genital tract for many hours, so the physician may time the insemination within a window of several hours around the time of ovulation. Following the IUI, you will take daily supplemental progesterone—usually in the form of a capsule inserted into your vagina twice a day—to support the endometrial lining of the uterus and implantation of the embryo.
In contrast, a study in 2016 compared outcomes of IVF and ICSI in patients with unexplained infertility and normal semen quality and showed promising results using ICSI 3. It was found that ICSI oocytes (84.5%) had a significantly higher fertilization rate compared to those inseminated by conventional IVF (67.6%). Moreover, there were no cases of complete fertilization failure (CFF) in the ICSI group, but CFF occurred in 7.9% of the IVF group.
A body mass index (BMI) over 27 causes a 33% decrease in likelihood to have a live birth after the first cycle of IVF, compared to those with a BMI between 20 and 27.[29] Also, pregnant women who are obese have higher rates of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, hypertension, thromboembolism and problems during delivery, as well as leading to an increased risk of fetal congenital abnormality.[29] Ideal body mass index is 19–30.[17]
Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10–30% of infertile couples.[23] In both men and women, ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract, inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, and impaired growth and development of the embryo. The antibodies are classified into different groups: There are IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies. They also differ in the location of the spermatozoon they bind on (head, mid piece, tail). Factors contributing to the formation of antisperm antibodies in women are disturbance of normal immunoregulatory mechanisms, infection, violation of the integrity of the mucous membranes, rape and unprotected oral or anal sex. Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the blood‑testis barrier, trauma and surgery, orchitis, varicocele, infections, prostatitis, testicular cancer, failure of immunosuppression and unprotected receptive anal or oral sex with men.[23][24]
After your body releases an egg, the hormone progesterone kicks in to build and maintain the lining of the uterus. It makes your body temperature go up slightly. So taking your temperature with a basal thermometer every morning before you get out of bed can help you figure out if you ovulated. You can buy these thermometers at the drugstore. They're inexpensive, but they aren't as accurate as other ways of tracking ovulation.

Spend quality time with your child. In the midst of your infertility problems, you may feel especially upset about shifting your focus from the child you already have to the child you’re longing to have in the future. You may even feel guilty about your inability to give your little one a sibling or about the sadness you are sure is spilling over into her life. The best thing you can do for your child in this situation is to keep life as normal as possible, and ideally, find some quality time to be together. Whether it’s a chat about her day before you tuck her into bed or an afternoon romp in the park, those rituals will go a long way toward keeping your tot’s world stable and happy — even if you sometimes feel your world is spinning out of control. (You might find that focusing on your child lets you live in the moment — at least for a little while — which can help you cope with secondary infertility.) If you’re in a particularly bad place and fear that you may have a hard time handling your true emotions in front of your child (say, your pregnancy test just came up negative for the zillionth time in a row), see if you can arrange to send her to a friend’s house, or enlist your partner or mother-in-law to take over for a bit. Allowing yourself the time to compose yourself can make it much easier to face your little pride and joy with a smile.
For healthy couples in their 20s or early 30s, the chance that a woman will get pregnant is about 25 to 30 percent in any single menstrual cycle. This percentage starts to decline in a woman’s early 30s. By age 40, a woman’s chance of getting pregnant drops to less than 10 percent per menstrual cycle. A man’s fertility also declines with age, but not as predictably.

Ovarian stimulation – You’ll take stimulation medications to increases both the quantity and quality of eggs. This usually begins during days 2-4 of your cycle and continues for around ten days. You’ll be closely monitored during this time to track your uterine lining, follicular development, and hormone levels. Once the follicles are optimal size, a trigger medication is given to fully mature the eggs.


If a man and woman 35 or younger have had unprotected sex for at least 12 months (or six months if older than 35) without getting pregnant, they should suspect secondary infertility. This especially applies to women older than 30 who have experienced pelvic inflammatory disease, painful periods, irregular menstrual cycles or miscarriages, and to men with low sperm counts.
Amenorrhea (including hypothalmic amenorrhea) is a condition in which there is an absence of menstrual periods in a woman. There are two types of amenorrhea: primary and secondary. Treatment of amenorrhea depends on the type. In primary, surgery may be an option and in secondary amenorrhea medication or lifestyle changes may be treatment options. We go over the definition of amenorrhea, causes, and treatment options for amenorrhea.

Certain kinds of IVF, in particular ICSI (first applied in 1991) and blastocyst transfer (first applied in 1984) have been shown to lead to distortions in the sex ratio at birth. ICSI leads to slightly more female births (51.3% female) while blastocyst transfer leads to significantly more boys (56.1% male) being born. Standard IVF done at the second or third day leads to a normal sex ratio.

Sometimes problems getting pregnant for a second or subsequent time are related to a complication that occurred in a prior pregnancy or prior to delivery (damage to the uterus, for instance). But most often, secondary infertility is caused by the same factors that would cause primary infertility — issues like advanced age, obesity, ovulation problems and so on.
Risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). OHSS can happen when women respond too well to fertility drugs and produce too many eggs. About 10 to 20 percent of women who take gonadotropins develop a mild form of OHSS, a condition marked by weight gain and a full, bloated feeling. Some also have shortness of breath, dizziness, pelvic pain, nausea, and vomiting. If you have OHSS, your ovaries swell to several times the normal size and produce fluid that accumulates in your abdominal cavity. Normally this resolves itself with careful monitoring by a physician and bed rest. But in rare cases it's life threatening, and you may have to be hospitalized for more intensive monitoring or treatment.
The laboratory – This is when the harvested eggs are fertilized by an embryologist. Once fertilized, they’re grown 3-5 days until they’re able to be transferred into the woman’s uterus. Prior to the transfer, the embryos can be genetically tested. Although testing isn’t right for everyone, it’s useful for some people as it may help prevent miscarriage, passing on known genetic disorders, and can also be used to choose the sex of the child.
The eggs are retrieved from the patient using a transvaginal technique called transvaginal oocyte retrieval, involving an ultrasound-guided needle piercing the vaginal wall to reach the ovaries. Through this needle follicles can be aspirated, and the follicular fluid is passed to an embryologist to identify ova. It is common to remove between ten and thirty eggs. The retrieval procedure usually takes between 20 and 40 minutes, depending on the number of mature follicles, and is usually done under conscious sedation or general anaesthesia.
Low weight: Obesity is not the only way in which weight can impact fertility. Men who are underweight tend to have lower sperm concentrations than those who are at a normal BMI. For women, being underweight and having extremely low amounts of body fat are associated with ovarian dysfunction and infertility and they have a higher risk for preterm birth. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa are also associated with extremely low BMI. Although relatively uncommon, eating disorders can negatively affect menstruation, fertility, and maternal and fetal well-being.
Medical treatment of infertility generally involves the use of fertility medication, medical device, surgery, or a combination of the following. If the sperm are of good quality and the mechanics of the woman's reproductive structures are good (patent fallopian tubes, no adhesions or scarring), a course of ovulation induction maybe used. The physician or WHNP may also suggest using a conception cap cervical cap, which the patient uses at home by placing the sperm inside the cap and putting the conception device on the cervix, or intrauterine insemination (IUI), in which the doctor or WHNP introduces sperm into the uterus during ovulation, via a catheter. In these methods, fertilization occurs inside the body.

Typically, genetic parents donate the eggs to a fertility clinic or where they are preserved by oocyte cryopreservation or embryo cryopreservation until a carrier is found for them. Typically the process of matching the embryo(s) with the prospective parents is conducted by the agency itself, at which time the clinic transfers ownership of the embryos to the prospective parents.[89]


Laboratories have developed grading methods to judge ovocyte and embryo quality. In order to optimise pregnancy rates, there is significant evidence that a morphological scoring system is the best strategy for the selection of embryos.[72] Since 2009 where the first time-lapse microscopy system for IVF was approved for clinical use,[73] morphokinetic scoring systems has shown to improve to pregnancy rates further.[74] However, when all different types of time-lapse embryo imaging devices, with or without morphokinetic scoring systems, are compared against conventional embryo assessment for IVF, there is insufficient evidence of a difference in live-birth, pregnancy, stillbirth or miscarriage to choose between them.[75] Active efforts to develop a more accurate embryo selection analysis based on Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning are underway. Embryo Ranking Intelligent Classification Assistant (ERICA),[76] is a clear example. This Deep Learning software substitutes manual classifications with a ranking system based on an individual embryo's predicted genetic status in a non-invasive fashion.[77] Studies on this area are still pending and current feasibility studies support its potential.[78]
It is extremely difficult for those with unexplained infertility to know when to stop looking for a cause, to say “enough is enough.” You may feel you are entering a state of limbo. You may feel stuck unable to grieve and get on with other options because you hang on to those slender threads of hope that the cause of your infertility will be revealed in the next test or treatment. Your sadness may intensify as time passes and you find no medical or emotional resolution. Consider finding a Support Group or Mental Health Professional in your area.
Ovarian stimulation with hormonal medication is performed over a period of around 10-14 days. During this time, progress is monitored through ultrasound scans and blood tests. When enough oocytes (eggs) have developed in the ovaries, a final hormone injection triggers the maturing of the oocytes. Thirty-six hours later, egg retrieval is scheduled to take place in the fertility clinic.
Post transfer – You’ll likely take progesterone and estrogen to improve implantation and pregnancy rates. If the transfer is successful, a blood pregnancy test will be positive in 10-14 days. From there, ultrasounds are used to ensure the implantation site as well as check for a heartbeat. The good news is that once a heartbeat is detected, the pregnancy has a 90-95% probability of the pregnancy resulting in a live birth.
Because not each IVF cycle that is started will lead to oocyte retrieval or embryo transfer, reports of live birth rates need to specify the denominator, namely IVF cycles started, IVF retrievals, or embryo transfers. The SART summarised 2008–9 success rates for US clinics for fresh embryo cycles that did not involve donor eggs and gave live birth rates by the age of the prospective mother, with a peak at 41.3% per cycle started and 47.3% per embryo transfer for patients under 35 years of age.
The Fallopian tubes are the site for fertilization before the embryo makes its way to the uterine cavity for implantation. If the Fallopian tubes are damaged, fertilization may not occur. If one Fallopian tube is blocked, it may be due to inherent disease involving both Fallopian tubes; even if the other Fallopian tube is open, it may not be able to provide the appropriate nurturing environment for fertilization and early embryo growth to take place.
Obviously sperm is an essential ingredient in baby making, so when very little—or no—semen is ejaculated during climax, making that baby can be tough. Aptly called retrograde ejaculation, what happens is the semen goes backwards into the bladder, instead of up and out through the penis. A bunch of health conditions can cause it, including diabetes, nerve damage from spinal injuries, certain medications, and surgery of the bladder, prostate or urethra; treatment depends on the underlying cause. These are health secrets your prostate secretly wishes you knew.

Connect with your partner. Remember that he is also coping with secondary infertility along with you, and while your partner may be dealing with it differently, it can be extremely helpful to check in with each other emotionally. Set aside some time to talk about how your infertility problems are affecting each of you — that can help you both work through your emotions. Tired of talking about infertility or channeling all your collective energy into that second pregnancy? Plan a date night — totally unrelated to any baby-making duties. Since secondary infertility problems can take a toll on any relationship, date nights are needed now more than ever to keep the love and fun flowing. An added bonus: Since less stress often improves fertility, enjoying just being a couple could even increase your odds of achieving that second pregnancy.
Each case of infertility is different from the other. Hence it is extremely crucial, to be honest with your doctor about all your symptoms and problems. The doctor needs to know all the details regarding your reproductive health including any previous miscarriages, or abortions if any. This helps in diagnosis and formulating a correct treatment for infertility.
Since marriage is a contract between the wife and husband during the span of their marriage, no third party should intrude into the marital functions of sex and procreation. This means that a third party donor is not acceptable, whether he or she is providing sperm, eggs, embryos, or a uterus. The use of a third party is tantamount to zina, or adultery.
In humans, infertility is the inability to become pregnant after one year of intercourse without contraception involving a male and female partner.[2] There are many causes of infertility, including some that medical intervention can treat.[3] Estimates from 1997 suggest that worldwide about five percent of all heterosexual couples have an unresolved problem with infertility. Many more couples, however, experience involuntary childlessness for at least one year: estimates range from 12% to 28%.[4] Male infertility is responsible for 20–30% of infertility cases, while 20–35% are due to female infertility, and 25–40% are due to combined problems in both parts.[2][5] In 10–20% of cases, no cause is found.[5] The most common cause of female infertility is ovulatory problems, which generally manifest themselves by sparse or absent menstrual periods.[6] Male infertility is most commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.[7]

Epigenetic testing may allow patients to forgo the cost of multiple rounds of IVF by predicting whether embryos will fail. Equipped with this information, couples can have their IVF cycles optimized to account for embryonic versus fertilization issues. This represents a significant leap for the medical community given that 36% of couples struggling with unexplained infertility are currently over-treated.


Sit down with your partner and make a "fertility road map" that outlines what you're willing to try and for approximately how long, suggests Dr. Davidson. "Would you do in vitro fertilization? Would you consider an egg donor? How much money can you spend on treatment? Then build in a timeline," she says. "When you at least loosely define a time frame, dealing with infertility doesn't feel like an endless void."
After the retrieval procedure, you'll be kept for a few hours to make sure all is well. Light spotting is common, as well as lower abdominal cramping, but most feel better in a day or so after the procedure. You'll also be told to watch for signs of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, a side effect from fertility drug use during IVF treatment in 10% of patients.

Fertility is often something people do not consider until they are actively trying to start a family, or in many cases after they have started having trouble conceiving. What many don’t realize is that couples ages 29-33 with normal functioning reproductive systems only have a 20-25% chance of conceiving in any given month. Add in any number of infertility factors from either gender and those chances can decrease significantly.


Using the information that you enter below, this tool allows you to estimate your chance of having a live birth using in vitro fertilization (IVF)—the most common type of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). This information is calculated based on the experiences of women and couples with similar characteristics. The estimates are based on the data we have available and may not be representative of your specific experience. Additionally, this IVF success estimator does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Please speak with your doctor about your specific treatment plan and potential for success.
4. Significant Hair Growth (or Hair Loss): Polycystic ovarian syndrome causes small cysts to form on the outside of the ovaries, and it also causes the body to produce an excess of male hormones. If you notice hair growing in unusual places like your face, arms, chest or back, this could be a warning sign. On the flip side, hair loss or thinning could be a sign of other infertility related conditions like thyroid issues, anemia or autoimmune disorders.
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